1. Isolation and genetic analysis of human origin H1N1 and H3N2 influenza viruses from pigs in China.
  2. 25 Feb 2007 Influenza A viruses of subtypes H1N1 and H3N2 have been reported widely in pigs, associated with clinical disease. These mainly include classical swine H1N1, avian-like H1N1, and human-like or avian-like H3N2 viruses. From 2005 to 2006, we carried …
  3. Receptor binding specificity of recent human H3N2 influenza viruses.
  4. 7 May 2007 BACKGROUND: Human influenza viruses are known to bind to sialic acid linked alpha2-6 to galactose, but the binding specificity beyond that linkage has not been systematically examined. H3N2 human influenza isolates lost binding to chicken red cells …
  5. Mismatched hemagglutinin and neuraminidase specificities in recent human H3N2 influenza viruses.
  6. 13 Aug 2005 The hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza viruses initiates infection by binding to sialic acid on the cell surface via alpha2,6 (human) or alpha2,3 (avian) linkage. The influenza neuraminidase (NA) can cleave both alpha2,3- and alpha2,6-linked sialic …
  7. Serological profiles after consecutive experimental infections of pigs with European H1N1, H3N2, and H1N2 swine influenza viruses.
  8. 30 Dec 2005 Swine influenza viruses (SIVs) of H1N1, H3N2, and H1N2 subtypes, with antigenically different hemagglutinins, are currently cocirculating in pigs in Europe. This study aimed to determine whether the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test, which is …
  9. [Molecular characterization of human influenza viruses–a look back on the last 10 years]
  10. 27 Feb 2006 Influenza A (H3N2) viruses and influenza B viruses have caused more than 90% of influenza infections in Germany during the last then years. Continuous and extensive antigenic variation was evident for both the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase …
  11. Alterations in receptor binding properties of recent human influenza H3N2 viruses are associated with reduced natural killer cell lysis of infected cells.
  12. 30 Jul 2007 Natural killer (NK) cell recognition of influenza virus-infected cells involves hemagglutinin (HA) binding to sialic acid (SA) on activating NK receptors. SA also acts as a receptor for the binding of influenza virus to its target host cells. The …
  13. [Characteristic analysis of NA gene of human influenza viruses (H3N2) isolated from 1996 to 2005 in China]
  14. 30 Aug 2007 The NA genes of 395 strains of human H3N2 influenza virus isolated from 1996 to 2005 in China were sequenced, analyzed with bioinformatics tools. The NA nucleotide sequence of phylogenetic tree showed a main evolution branch with multiple short …
  15. Identifying potential immunodominant positions and predicting antigenic variants of influenza A/H3N2 viruses.
  16. 3 Oct 2007 Human influenza viruses cause annual epidemics due to antigenic drifts in the hemagglutinin protein. Five antigenic sites in the influenza H3 hemagglutinin protein have been proposed and 131 amino acid positions have been identified in the five …
  17. Genetic evolution of swine influenza A (H3N2) viruses in China from 1970 to 2006.
  18. 14 Jan 2008 Pigs are susceptible to both human and avian influenza viruses and have been proposed to be intermediate hosts, or mixing vessels, for the generation of pandemic influenza viruses through reassortment or adaptation to the mammalian host. In this …
  19. N-linked glycosylation attenuates H3N2 influenza viruses.
  20. 4 Jun 2007 Over the last four decades, H3N2 subtype influenza A viruses have gradually acquired additional potential sites for glycosylation within the globular head of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein. Here, we have examined the biological effect of additional …
  21. Antigenic and genetic evolution of swine influenza A (H3N2) viruses in Europe.
  22. 5 Feb 2007 In the early 1970s, a human influenza A/Port Chalmers/1/73 (H3N2)-like virus colonized the European swine population. Analyses of swine influenza A (H3N2) viruses isolated in The Netherlands and Belgium revealed that in the early 1990s, antigenic …
  23. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of H1N1 and H3N2 human influenza A viruses among infants and children in Thailand.
  24. 19 Dec 2007 The annual influenza outbreaks can cause a high mortality rate among infants and children. In the tropics, influenza shows no clear dependence on seasons. In the present study, we performed molecular and phylogenetic analysis of H1N1 and H3N2 …
  25. Surveillance of resistance to adamantanes among influenza A(H3N2) and A(H1N1) viruses isolated worldwide.
  26. 5 Jun 2007 Our previous reports demonstrated an alarming increase in resistance to adamantanes among influenza A(H3N2) viruses isolated in 2001-2005. To continue monitoring drug resistance, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of influenza A(H3N2) and …
  27. Genetic analysis of influenza A/H3N2 and A/H1N1 viruses circulating in Vietnam from 2001 to 2006.
  28. 15 Oct 2007 Influenza A virus has the ability to overcome immunity from previous infections through the acquisition of genetic changes. Thus, understanding the evolution of the viruses in humans is important for the surveillance and the selection of vaccine …
  29. [Sequence analysis of the HA1 regions of hemagglutinin genes of influenza viruses (H3N2) isolated from children in Beijing from 1998 – 2004]
  30. 27 Feb 2006 OBJECTIVE: To characterize the HA1 regions of hemagglutinin gene of influenza viruses (H3N2) isolated from children in Beijing from 1998 – 2004. METHODS: The HA1 regions of hemagglutinin gene were amplified by RT-PCR from the viruses isolated and …
  31. The global circulation of seasonal influenza A (H3N2) viruses.
  32. 16 Apr 2008 Antigenic and genetic analysis of the hemagglutinin of approximately 13,000 human influenza A (H3N2) viruses from six continents during 2002-2007 revealed that there was continuous circulation in east and Southeast Asia (E-SE Asia) via a …
  33. [Molecular analyses of human influenza viruses. Circulation of new variants since 1995/96]
  34. 30 Aug 2008 The evolution of influenza viruses is increasingly pursued by molecular analyses that complement classical methods. The analyses focus on the two surface proteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) which determine the viral antigenic …
  35. The evolution of human influenza A viruses from 1999 to 2006: a complete genome study.
  36. 5 Mar 2008 BACKGROUND: Knowledge about the complete genome constellation of seasonal influenza A viruses from different countries is valuable for monitoring and understanding of the evolution and migration of strains. Few complete genome sequences of …
  37. Whole-genome analysis of human influenza A virus reveals multiple persistent lineages and reassortment among recent H3N2 viruses.
  38. 24 Jul 2005 Understanding the evolution of influenza A viruses in humans is important for surveillance and vaccine strain selection. We performed a phylogenetic analysis of 156 complete genomes of human H3N2 influenza A viruses collected between 1999 and 2004 …
  39. Molecular and phylogenetic analysis of human influenza virus among Iranian patients in Shiraz, Iran.
  40. 30 May 2007 Influenza is a viral respiratory pathogen responsible for frequent seasonal epidemics. There are currently three major human influenza viruses in global circulation namely A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and B. The objective of this study was to determine the …
  41. Isolation and genetic characterization of avian origin H9N2 influenza viruses from pigs in China.
  42. 4 Mar 2008 As pigs are susceptible to infection with both avian and human influenza A viruses, they have been proposed to be an intermediate host for the adaptation of avian influenza viruses to humans. In April 2006, a disease caused by highly pathogenic …
  43. [Genome sequence analysis of an H3N2 subtype swine influenza virus isolated from Guangdong province in China]
  44. 29 Sep 2007 An H3N2 subtype swine influenza virus, A/Swine/ Guangdong/01/2005 (H3N2), was isolated from pigs with influenza-like signs in Guangdong province in 2005. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to amplify the gene segments …
  45. [Sequence analysis of the HA1 regions of hemagglutinin gene from influenza viruses (H3N2) isolated from children in Beijing in 2004 indicated antigenic variation]
  46. 30 Aug 2005 OBJECTIVE: To identify variations in hemagglutinin genes from influenza viruses (H3N2) isolated from infants and young children with acute respiratory infection (ARI) between March, 2004 and April 2005. METHODS: RNAs from influenza A virus strains …
  47. Domestic pigs have low susceptibility to H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses.
  48. 9 Jul 2008 Genetic reassortment of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAI) with currently circulating human influenza A strains is one possibility that could lead to efficient human-to-human transmissibility. Domestic pigs which are susceptible …
  49. Triple reassortant H3N2 influenza A viruses, Canada, 2005.
  50. 29 Jun 2006 Since January 2005, H3N2 influenza viruses have been isolated from pigs and turkeys throughout Canada and from a swine farmer and pigs on the same farm in Ontario. These are human/classical swine/avian reassortants similar to viruses that emerged …
  51. Dual infections by influenza A/H3N2 and B viruses and by influenza A/H3N2 and A/H1N1 viruses during winter 2007, Corsica Island, France.
  52. 30 Jan 2008 BACKGROUND: The investigation of dual influenza infection human cases is of major interest specifically for the control of new emerging influenza strains. OBJECTIVES: Using RT-PCR assays, we retrospectively assessed the prevalence of dual influenza …
  53. Vaccination of pigs against swine influenza viruses by using an NS1-truncated modified live-virus vaccine.
  54. 28 Aug 2006 Swine influenza viruses (SIV) naturally infect pigs and can be transmitted to humans. In the pig, genetic reassortment to create novel influenza subtypes by mixing avian, human, and swine influenza viruses is possible. An SIV vaccine inducing …
  55. MDCK-SIAT1 cells show improved isolation rates for recent human influenza viruses compared to conventional MDCK cells.
  56. 12 May 2008 The ability to isolate and propagate influenza virus is an essential tool for the yearly surveillance of circulating virus strains and to ensure accurate clinical diagnosis for appropriate treatment. The suitability of MDCK-SIAT1 cells, engineered …
  57. Molecular evolution of influenza A (H3N2) viruses circulated in Fujian Province, China during the 1996-2004 period.
  58. 25 Mar 2008 We studied the genetic and epidemic characteristics of influenza A (H3N2) viruses circulated in human in Fujian Province, south of China from 1996 to 2004. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out for genes encoding hemagglutinin1 (HA1) of influenza A …
  59. Genetic compatibility and virulence of reassortants derived from contemporary avian H5N1 and human H3N2 influenza A viruses.
  60. 21 May 2008 The segmented structure of the influenza virus genome plays a pivotal role in its adaptation to new hosts and the emergence of pandemics. Despite concerns about the pandemic threat posed by highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses, little is …
  61. Isolation and genetic characterization of new reassortant H3N1 swine influenza virus from pigs in the midwestern United States.
  62. 29 Apr 2006 Since the introduction of H3N2 swine influenza viruses (SIVs) into U.S. swine in 1998, H1N2 and H1N1 reassortant viruses have emerged from reassortment between classical H1N1 and H3N2 viruses. In 2004, a new reassortant H3N1 virus …
  63. Evaluation of MChip with historic subtype H1N1 influenza A viruses, including the 1918 “Spanish Flu” strain.
  64. 10 Sep 2007 The robustness of a recently developed diagnostic microarray for influenza, the MChip, was evaluated with 16 historic subtype H1N1 influenza A viruses (A/H1N1), including A/Brevig Mission/1/1918. The matrix gene segments from all 16 viruses were …
  65. Networks of genomic co-occurrence capture characteristics of human influenza A (H3N2) evolution.
  66. 19 Nov 2007 The recent availability of full genomic sequence data for a large number of human influenza A (H3N2) virus isolates over many years provides us an opportunity to analyze human influenza virus evolution by considering all gene segments …
  67. [Antigenic and genetic study of influenza virus (H1N1) circulated in China in 2004-2005]
  68. 30 May 2006 BACKGROUND: To analyze the genetic and antigenic characteristics of hemagglutinin (HA) gene of human influenza (H1N1) virus isolated from the mainland of China since 2004 to 2005. METHODS: The single-way hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests were …
  69. Novel reassortant of swine influenza H1N2 virus in Germany.
  70. 30 Dec 2007 European porcine H1N2 influenza viruses arose after multiple reassortment steps involving a porcine influenza virus with avian-influenza-like internal segments and human H1N1 and H3N2 viruses in 1994. In Germany, H1N2 swine influenza viruses first …
  71. High frequency of amantadine-resistant influenza A (H3N2) viruses in the 2005-2006 season and rapid detection of amantadine-resistant influenza A (H3N2) viruses by MAMA-PCR.
  72. 29 Jun 2007 Using the newly designed mismatch amplification mutation assay (MAMA) PCR, we demonstrated the high frequency of amantadine-resistant influenza A (H3N2) viruses isolated during the 2005-2006 season by detecting the mutation at amino acid position …
  73. Genetic analysis of the nonstructural (NS) genes of H9N2 chicken influenza viruses isolated in China during 1998-2002.
  74. 29 Nov 2005 H9N2 subtype avian influenza viruses are widespread in domestic poultry. Genetic analysis indicated that three lineages of H9N2 viruses have been established in Eurasia and only one lineage is present on chicken farms in mainland China. Here, NS1 …
  75. Genetic and antigenic relatedness of H3 subtype influenza A viruses isolated from avian and mammalian species.
  76. 24 Dec 2007 In 2004, we isolated triple reassortant H3N2 influenza viruses from turkey breeder hens in Ohio and Illinois. The Illinois flock was vaccinated twice with an inactivated H3N2 vaccine containing a swine origin virus before the outbreak. …
  77. Investigation of exposure to swine influenza viruses in Ontario (Canada) finisher herds in 2004 and 2005.
  78. 30 Jun 2007 The epidemiology of influenza in the North American swine population has changed since the emergence of a triple-reassortant H3N2 influenza virus. Although seen previously in North America, the Ontario swine population had likely been free of …
  79. The genesis and spread of reassortment human influenza A/H3N2 viruses conferring adamantane resistance.
  80. 21 May 2007 A dramatic rise in the frequency of resistance to adamantane drugs by influenza A (H3N2) viruses has occurred in recent years — from approximately 2% to approximately 90% in multiple countries worldwide-and associated with a single S31N amino acid …
  81. A new and rapid genotypic assay for the detection of neuraminidase inhibitor resistant influenza A viruses of subtype H1N1, H3N2, and H5N1.
  82. 17 Sep 2008 The neuraminidase of influenza viruses is the target of the inhibitors oseltamivir and zanamivir. Recent reports on influenza viruses with reduced susceptibility to neuraminidase inhibitors (NAI) are a cause for concern. Several amino acid …
  83. Comparative analytical sensitivities of six rapid influenza A antigen detection test kits for detection of influenza A subtypes H1N1, H3N2 and H5N1.
  84. 25 Dec 2006 BACKGROUND: Rapid and simple methods for diagnosing human influenza A (H5N1) disease urgently needed. The limited data so far suggest that the currently available rapid antigen detection kits have poor clinical sensitivity for diagnosis of human …
  85. Pathogenesis and inflammatory responses of swine H1N2 influenza viruses in pigs.
  86. 12 Jun 2007 Swine influenza viruses are an important pathogen in pig industry. In this study, we wanted to know whether swine H1N2 influenza viruses circulating in Korean pigs would cause clinical signs in pigs when experimentally infected. When pigs were …
  87. An RNA aptamer that distinguishes between closely related human influenza viruses and inhibits haemagglutinin-mediated membrane fusion.
  88. 27 Feb 2006 Aptamers selected against various kinds of targets have shown remarkable specificity and affinity, similar to those displayed by antibodies to their antigens. To employ aptamers as genotyping reagents for the identification of pathogens and their …
  89. [Adamantane resistance among influenza A (H3N2) viruses isolated from the mainland of China]
  90. 30 May 2006 BACKGROUND: To study the incidence of adamantane resistance among influenza A (H3N2) viruses isolated from the mainland of China since 1989 through our influenza surveillance system, and to provide more information for the clinical usage of …
  91. High incidence of amantadine-resistant influenza H1N1 viruses isolated during the 2007-2008 season in Nara Prefecture, Japan.
  92. 29 Apr 2008
  93. Influenza viruses in animal wildlife populations.
  94. 30 Dec 2006 Influenza viruses belong to the family Orthomyxoviridae. Genus Influenza A viruses are true zoonotic agents with many animal reservoirs, whereas genus Influenza B viruses are generally considered to be a virus of humans. The genome of influenza A …
  95. Antigenic and genetic characterization of H9N2 swine influenza viruses in China.
  96. 29 Jun 2007 As pigs are susceptible to infection with both avian and human influenza A viruses, they have been proposed to be an intermediate host for the generation of pandemic virus through reassortment. Antigenic and genetic characterization was performed …
  97. Characterization of human H1N1 influenza virus variants selected in vitro with zanamivir in the presence of sialic acid-containing molecules.
  98. 2 Sep 2007 Understanding the molecular mechanisms of influenza virus resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors is a main concern for their clinical use. In an attempt to reproduce in vivo selective conditions where influenza virus resistance to neuraminidase …


Supported  by

Yudhasmara Foundation

JL Taman Bendungan Asahan 5 Jakarta Indonesia 102010

phone : 62(021) 70081995 – 5703646


Clinical and Editor in Chief :


email :








Copyright © 2009, Clinic For Children Information Education Network. All rights reserved.


Tinggalkan Balasan

Isikan data di bawah atau klik salah satu ikon untuk log in:


You are commenting using your account. Logout / Ubah )

Gambar Twitter

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Logout / Ubah )

Foto Facebook

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Logout / Ubah )

Foto Google+

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Logout / Ubah )

Connecting to %s