Gamma-irradiated influenza A virus can prime for a cross-reactive and cross-protective immune response against influenza A viruses

Immunology and Cell Biology (1988) 66, 153–157; doi:10.1038/icb.1988.19

A Müllbacher1, GL Ada1 and R Tha Hla1

1Department of Microbiology, John Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia

Received 8 October 1987; Accepted 14 December 1987.


A-strain influenza virus A/JAP (H2N2) was tested for its ability to induce cytotoxic T cells (Tc) after being rendered non-infectious by either UV or gamma irradiation. Gamma-irradiated virus proved to be more efficient than UV-inactivated virus in priming for a memory Tc cell response or in boosting memory spleen cells in vitro. Most importantly, gamma-inactivated, but not UV-inactivated, A/JAP immunized animals survived lethal challenge with heterologous (A/PC(H3N2), A/WSN(H1N1)) virus as effectively as mice primed with infectious virus.


  1. Zweerink, HJ, Courtneidge, SA, Skehel, JJ, Crumpton, MJ and Askonas, BA. 1977. Cytotoxic T cells kill influenza virus-infected cells but do not distinguish between serologically distinct type A viuses. Nature (Lond.) 267: 354–356.
  2. Braciale, TJ. 1977. Immunologic recognition of influenza virus-infected cells. Cell. Immunol. 33: 423–436. | Article | PubMed | ChemPort |
  3. Yap, KL, Ada, GL and McKenzie, IFC. 1978. Transfer of specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes protects mice inoculated with influenza virus. Nature (Lond.). 273, 238–239.
  4. Lin, YL and Askonas, BA. 1981. Biological properties of an influenza A virus-specific killer T cell clone. J. Exp. Med. 154: 225–234. | Article | PubMed | ISI | ChemPort |
  5. Braciale, TJ and Yap, KL. 1978. Role of viral infectivity in the induction of influenza virus specific cytotoxic T cells. J. Exp. Med. 147: 1236–1252. | Article | PubMed | ISI | ChemPort |
  6. Webster, RG and Askonas, BA. 1980. Cross protection and cross reactive cytotoxic T cells induced by influenza virus vaccines in mice. Eur. J. Immunol. 10: 396–401. | PubMed | ISI | ChemPort |
  7. Müllbacher, A, Marshall, ID and Blanden, RV. 1979. Cross-reactive cytotoxic T cells to alphavirus infection. Scand. J. Immunol. 10: 291–296.
  8. Müllbacher, A, Marshall, ID and Ferris, P. 1986. Classification of Barmah Forest virus as an alpha-virus using cytotoxic T cell assays. J. Gen. Virol. 67: 295–299.
  9. Yap, KL and Ada, GL. 1977. Cytotoxic T cells specific for influenza virus-infected target cells. Immunology 32: 151. | PubMed | ChemPort |
  10. Parish, CR and Müllbacher, A. 1983. Automated colorimetric assay for T cell cytotoxicity. J. Immunol. Meth. 58: 225–237. | Article | ISI | ChemPort |
  11. Müllbacher, A. 1984. Hyperthermia and the generation and activity of murine influenza-immune cytotoxic T cells in vitro J. Virol. 52: 928–931.
  12. Ada, GL and Jones, PD. 1986. The immune response to influenza infection. Current Topics in Microbiol. Immunol. 128: 1–54.
  13. Marennikova, SS and Maccvic, GR. 1975. Experimental study of the role of inactivated vaccine in two-step vaccination against smallpox. Bull. World Health Organ. 52: 51.
  14. Elliott, LH, McCormick, JB and Johnson, KM. 1982. Inactivation of Lassa, Marburg and Ebola viruses by gamma irradiation. J. Clin. Microbiol. 16: 704–708.
  15. Lupton, HW. 1981. Inactivation of Ebola virus with 60Co irradiation. J. Infect. Dis. 143: 291.


Supported  by

Yudhasmara Foundation

JL Taman Bendungan Asahan 5 Jakarta Indonesia 102010

phone : 62(021) 70081995 – 5703646


Clinical and Editor in Chief :


email :








Copyright © 2009, Clinic For Children Information Education Network. All rights reserved.


Tinggalkan Balasan

Isikan data di bawah atau klik salah satu ikon untuk log in:


You are commenting using your account. Logout / Ubah )

Gambar Twitter

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Logout / Ubah )

Foto Facebook

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Logout / Ubah )

Foto Google+

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Logout / Ubah )

Connecting to %s