Wild-type H1N1 and recombinant H3N2-H1N1 influenza A viruses

Wild-type A/USSR/90/77 (H1N1) influenza A virus and a few of its antigenic variants were inoculated into volunteers. Infections readily occurred in people of all ages who had initial low antibody titers, but clinical effects were generally mild in comparison with those of the previously tested subtypes, H0N1, H1N1, H2N2, H3N2. There was, however, an inverse relationship between severity of symptoms and age of volunteers, although the incidence of virus excretion and of increase in anti-hemagglutinin was apparently not age related. Naturally occurring recombinant viruses with H3 hemagglutinin and one or more genes of A/USSR/098/77-like strains were likewise studied in volunteers. These clones also produced mild symptoms, providing evidence of an attenuating effect on H3N2 viruses by the substitution of some of its genes with the genes of an H1N1 virus.

  • Cretescu L, Beare AS, Schild GC. Formation of antibody to matrix protein in experimental human influenza A virus infections. Infect Immun. 1978 Nov;22(2):322–327. [PubMed]
  • DAVENPORT FM, HENNESSY AV, FRANCIS T., Jr Epidemiologic and immunologic significance of age distribution of antibody to antigenic variants of influenza virus. J Exp Med. 1953 Dec;98(6):641–656. [PubMed]
  • Easterday BC, Tumova B. Avian influenza viruses: in avian species and the natural history of influenza. Adv Vet Sci Comp Med. 1972;16:201–222. [PubMed]
  • ISAACS A, GLEDHILL AW, ANDREWES CH. Influenza A viruses; laboratory studies, with special reference to European outbreak of 1950-1. Bull World Health Organ. 1952;6(3):287–315. [PubMed]
  • Rott R. Molecular basis of infectivity and pathogenicity of myxovirus. Brief review. Arch Virol. 1979;59(4):285–298. [PubMed]
  • Scholtissek C. The genome of the influenza virus. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 1978;80:139–169. [PubMed]
  • Scholtissek C, Harms E, Rohde W, Orlich M, Rott R. Correlation between RNA fragments of fowl plague virus and their corresponding gene functions. Virology. 1976 Oct 15;74(2):332–344. [PubMed]
  • Scholtissek C, von Hoyningen V, Rott R. Genetic relatedness between the new 1977 epidemic strains (H1N1) of influenza and human influenza strains isolated between 1947 and 1957 (H1N1). Virology. 1978 Sep;89(2):613–617. [PubMed]
  • Webster RG, Hinshaw VS, Bean WJ, Jr, Turner B, Shortridge KF. Influenza viruses from avian and porcine sources and their possible role in the origin of human pandemic strains. Dev Biol Stand. 1977 Jun 1;39:461–468. [PubMed]
  • Webster RG, Kendal AP, Gerhard W. Analysis of antigenic drift in recently isolated influenza A (H1N1) viruses using monoclonal antibody preparations. Virology. 1979 Jul 15;96(1):258–264. [PubMed]
  • Beare AS. Live viruses for immunization against influenza. Prog Med Virol. 1975;20:49–83. [PubMed]
  • Beare AS, Bynoe ML. Attenuation of human influenza A viruses. Br Med J. 1969 Oct 25;4(5677):198–201. [PubMed]
  • Beare AS, Craig JW. Virulence for man of a human influenza-A virus antigenically similar to “classical” swine viruses. Lancet. 1976 Jul 3;2(7975):4–5. [PubMed]
  • Yamane N, Arikawa J, Odagiri T, Sukeno N, Ishida N. Isolation of three different influenza A viruses from an individual after probable double infection with H3N2 and H1N1 viruses. Jpn J Med Sci Biol. 1978 31(5-6):431–434.Oct–Dec; [PubMed]
  • Zhdanov VM, Lvov DK, Zakstelskaya LY, Yakhno MA, Isachenko VI, Braude NA, Reznik VI, Pysina TV, Andreyev VP, Podchernyaeva RY. Return of epidemic A1 (H1N1) influenza virus. Lancet. 1978 Feb 11;1(8059):294–295. [PubMed]
  • Kendal AP, Joseph JM, Kobayashi G, Nelson D, Reyes CR, Ross MR, Sarandria JL, White R, Woodall DF, Noble GR, Dowdle WR. Laboratory-based surveillance of influenza virus in the United States during the winter of 1977-1978. I. Periods of prevalence of H1N1 and H3N2 influenza A strains, their relative rates of isolation in different age groups, and detection of antigenic variants. Am J Epidemiol. 1979 Oct;110(4):449–461. [PubMed]
  • Kendal AP, Lee DT, Parish HS, Raines D, Noble GR, Dowdle WR. Laboratory-based surveillance of influenza virus in the United States during the winter of 1977–1978. II. Isolation of a mixture of A/Victoria- and A/USSR-like viruses from a single person during an epidemic in Wyoming, USA, January 1978. Am J Epidemiol. 1979 Oct;110(4):462–468. [PubMed]
  • Kendal AP, Noble GR, Skehel JJ, Dowdle WR. Antigenic similarity of influenza A (H1N1) viruses from epidemics in 1977–1978 to “Scandinavian” strains isolated in epidemics of 1950–1951. Virology. 1978 Sep;89(2):632–636. [PubMed]
  • Kundin WD, Easterday BC. Hong Kong influenza infection in swine: experimental and field observations. Bull World Health Organ. 1972;47(4):489–491. [PubMed]
  • Kung HC, Jen KF, Yuan WC, Tien SF, Chu CM. Influenza in China in 1977: recurrence of influenzavirus A subtype H1N1. Bull World Health Organ. 1978;56(6):913–918. [PubMed]
  • Mackenzie JS. Virulence of temperature-sensitive mutants of influenza virus. Br Med J. 1969 Sep 27;3(5673):757–758. [PubMed]
  • Mills J, Chanock V, Chanock RM. Temperature-sensitive mutants of influenza virus. I. Behavior in tissue culture and in experimental animals. J Infect Dis. 1971 Feb;123(2):145–157. [PubMed]
  • Nakajima K, Desselberger U, Palese P. Recent human influenza A (H1N1) viruses are closely related genetically to strains isolated in 1950. Nature. 1978 Jul 27;274(5669):334–339. [PubMed]
  • Richman DD, Murphy BR. The association of the temperature-sensitive phenotype with viral attenuation in animals and humans: implications for the development and use of live virus vaccines. Rev Infect Dis. 1979 1(3):413–433.May–Jun; [PubMed]

Supported  by

Yudhasmara Foundation

JL Taman Bendungan Asahan 5 Jakarta Indonesia 102010

phone : 62(021) 70081995 – 5703646





Clinical and Editor in Chief :


email : judarwanto@gmail.com








Copyright © 2009, Clinic For Children Information Education Network. All rights reserved.


Tinggalkan Balasan

Isikan data di bawah atau klik salah satu ikon untuk log in:

Logo WordPress.com

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Logout / Ubah )

Gambar Twitter

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Logout / Ubah )

Foto Facebook

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Logout / Ubah )

Foto Google+

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Logout / Ubah )

Connecting to %s